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Розширений фонетичний алфавіт SAM (Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet) — варіант SAMPA, розроблений у 1995 році, професором фонетики . Він був сформований для уніфікації SAMPA алфавітів окремих мов й розширити SAMPA таким чином, що включити в нього увесь набір символів міжнародного фонетичного алфавіту.

В резутаті утворилася система відображення міжнародного фонетичного алфавіту за допомогою семибітових кодів ASCII.

Зміст

КороткоРедагувати

ПриміткиРедагувати

  • Ті символи МФА, які зображаються звичайними малими буквами латинського алфавіту зберегли свої значення в X-SAMPA.
  • X-SAMPA використовує обернений слеш (\) для створення нових символів. Наприклад, звук O відрізняється від O\

настільки, що не має з ним нічого спільного.

  • X-SAMPA diacritics follow the symbols they modify. Except for ~ for nasalization, = for syllabicity, and ` for retroflexion and rhotacization, diacritics are joined to the character with the underscore character _.
  • The underscore character is also used to encode the IPA tiebar.
  • The numbers _1 to _6 are reserved diacritics as shorthand for language-specific tone numbers.

Малі літериРедагувати

X-SAMPA IPA IPA Опис Приклад
a a   неогублений голосний переднього ряду низького піднесення French dame [dam], Spanish padre [«paD4e]
b b   voiced bilabial plosive English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ   voiced bilabial implosive Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
c c   voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian latyak [»lAcAk]
d d   voiced alveolar plosive English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ   voiced retroflex plosive Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ   voiced alveolar implosive Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
e e   close-mid front unrounded vowel French ses [se]
f f   voiceless labiodental fricative English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
g ɡ   voiced velar plosive English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ   voiced velar implosive Sindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
h h   voiceless glottal fricative English house [haUs]
h\ ɦ   voiced glottal fricative Czech hrad [h\rat]
i i   неогублений голосний переднього ряду високого піднесення English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j   palatal approximant English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\ ʝ   voiced palatal fricative Greek γειά [j\a]
k k   voiceless velar plosive English scat [sk{t], Spanish carro [«kar:o]
l l   alveolar lateral approximant English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l` ɭ   retroflex lateral approximant Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l\ ɺ   alveolar lateral flap Japanese phoneme /r/
m m   bilabial nasal English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
n n   alveolar nasal English nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n` ɳ   retroflex nasal Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
o o   close-mid back rounded vowel French gros [gRo]
p p   voiceless bilabial plosive English speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro [»per:o]
p\ ɸ   voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
q q   voiceless uvular plosive Arabic qasbah [«qQs_Gba]
r r   alveolar trill Spanish perro [»per:o]
r` ɽ   retroflex flap  
r\ ɹ   alveolar approximant English red [r\Ed]
r\` ɻ   retroflex approximant Malayalam വഴി [«v6r\`i]
s s   voiceless alveolar fricative English seem [si:m], French session [se»sjO~]
s` ʂ   voiceless retroflex fricative Swedish mars [mas`]
s\ ɕ   voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish świerszcz [s\v'erStS]
t t   voiceless alveolar plosive English stew [stju:], French raté [Ra"te], Spanish tuyo [«tujo]
t` ʈ   voiceless retroflex plosive Swedish mört [m2t`]
u u   close back rounded vowel English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v   voiced labiodental fricative English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P) ʋ   labiodental approximant Dutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
w w   labial-velar approximant English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
x x   voiceless velar fricative Scots loch [lQx]
x\ ɧ   voiceless palatal-velar fricative Swedish sjal [x\A:l]
y y   close front rounded vowel French tu [ty] German über [»y:b6]
z z   voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zu:], French azote [a"zOt]
z` ʐ   voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ ʑ   voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish źrebak [«z\rEbak]

Великі літериРедагувати

XS IPA IPA Опис Приклад
A ɑ   open back unrounded vowel English father [»fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β   voiced bilabial fricative Spanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ ʙ   bilabial trill Reminiscent of shivering («brrr»)
C ç   voiceless palatal fricative German ich [IC], English human [«Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð   voiced dental fricative English then [DEn]
E ɛ   open-mid front unrounded vowel French même [mEm], English met [mEt]
F ɱ   labiodental nasal English emphasis [»EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G ɣ   voiced velar fricative Greek γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge [«vElG@]
G\ ɢ   voiced uvular plosive Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_< ʛ   voiced uvular implosive Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
H ɥ   labial-palatal approximant French huit [Hi]
H\ ʜ   voiceless epiglottal fricative  
I ɪ   near-close near-front unrounded vowel English kit [kIt]
I\ Ɨ   central lax close unrounded vowel, not in IPA Polish ryba [rI\bA] 
J ɲ   palatal nasal Spanish año [»aJo], English canyon [«k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ ɟ   voiced palatal plosive Hungarian egy [EJ\]
J\_< ʄ   voiced palatal implosive Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
K ɬ   voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llaw [KaU]
K\ ɮ   voiced alveolar lateral fricative  
L ʎ   palatal lateral approximant Italian famiglia [fa»miLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], English million [«mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\ ʟ   velar lateral approximant
M ɯ   close back unrounded vowel Korean (eu)
M\ ɰ   velar approximant Spanish fuego [»fweM\o]
N ŋ   velar nasal English thing [TIN]
N\ ɴ   uvular nasal Japanese san [saN\]
O ɔ   open-mid back rounded vowel British English thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O\ ʘ   bilabial click  
P (or v\) ʋ   labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
Q ɒ   open back rounded vowel British English lot [lQt]
R ʁ   voiced uvular fricative French roi [Rwa]
R\ ʀ   uvular trill German phoneme /r/
S ʃ   voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp]
T θ   voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn]
U ʊ   near-close near-back rounded vowel English foot [fUt]
U\ ʊ̵   central lax close rounded vowel, not in IPA  
V ʌ   open-mid back unrounded vowel RP English strut [str\Vt]
W ʍ   voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn]
X χ   voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\ ħ   voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Y ʏ   near-close near-front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ   voiced postalveolar fricative English vision [«vIZ@n]

Інші символиРедагувати

XS IPA IPA Опис Приклад
. .   syllable break  
» ˈ   primary stress  
% ˌ   secondary stress  
' (or _j) ʲ   palatalized  
: ː   long  
:\ ˑ   half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-     separator  
@ ə   schwa English arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ ɘ   close-mid central unrounded vowel Paicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
{ æ   near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr\{p]
} ʉ   close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1 ɨ   close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American English rose's [«r\oUz1z]
2 ø   close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe [»k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3 ɜ   open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ ɞ   open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail[t3\:l']
4 ɾ   alveolar flap Spanish pero [«pe4o], American English better [»bE4@`]
5 ɫ   velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k]
6 ɐ   near-open central vowel German besser [«bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7 ɤ   close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Occurs in Vietnamese
8 ɵ   close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9 œ   open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& ɶ   open front rounded vowel
? ʔ   glottal stop Danish stød [sd2?], Cockney English bottle [»bQ?l]
?\ ʕ   voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع‎ (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
*     undefined escape character, SAMPA's «conjunctor»  
/     indeterminacy in French vowels  
<     begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
<\ ʢ   voiced epiglottal fricative  
>     end nonsegmental notation  
>\ ʡ   epiglottal plosive  
^   upstep  
!   downstep  
!\ ǃ   postalveolar click  
|     minor (foot) group  
|\ ǀ   dental click  
||     major (intonation) group  
|\|\ ǁ   lateral alveolar click  
=\ ǂ   palatal click  
-\ ̮   linking mark  

Діакритичні знакиРедагувати

XS IPA IPA Опис
_"   ̈   centralized
_+   ̟   advanced
_-   ̠   retracted
_/ ˇ   rising tone
_0   ̥   voiceless
_<     implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩   syllabic
_> ʼ   ejective
_?\ ˤ   pharyngealized
_\ ˆ   falling tone
_^   ̯   non-syllabic
_}   ̚   no audible release
` ˞   rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃   nasalization
_A   ̘   advanced tongue root
_a   ̺   apical
_B   ̏   extra low tone
_B_L     low rising tone
_c   ̜   less rounded
_d   ̪   dental
_e   ̴   velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F>     global fall
_F   ̂   falling tone
_G ˠ   velarized
_H   ́   high tone
_H_T     high rising tone
_h ʰ   aspirated
_j (or ') ʲ   palatalized
_k   ̰   creaky voice
_L   ̀   low tone
_l ˡ   lateral release
_M   ̄   mid tone
_m   ̻   laminal
_N   ̼   linguolabial
_n   nasal release
_O   ̹   more rounded
_o   ̞   lowered
_q   ̙   retracted tongue root
<R>     global rise
_R   ̌   rising tone
_R_F     rising falling tone
_r   ̝   raised
_T   ̋   extra high tone
_t   ̤   breathy voice
_v   ̬   voiced
_w ʷ   labialized
_X   ̆   extra-short
_x   ̽   mid-centralized

Також дивітьсяРедагувати

  • (IPA)
  • * , a language-specific predecessor of X-SAMPA.
  • , an unofficial, extended version of X-SAMPA used for * * , a similar system.

ПосиланняРедагувати