Саффариди: відмінності між версіями

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[[File:Saffarid dynasty 861-1003.png|thumb|Території під правлінням Саффаридів]]
'''Саффариди''' ({{lang-fa|سلسله صفاریان}})&nbsp;— династія перського походження<ref>''The Islamization of Central Asia in the Samanid era and the reshaping of the Muslim world'', D.G. Tor, '''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies''', University of London , Vol. 72, No. 2 (2009), 281;"''The Saffārids were the first of the Persianate dynasties to arise from the remains of the politically moribund ʿAbbāsid caliphate''".</ref> із [[Сістан]]у, що правила над частиною території сучасних Ірану<ref>''The Cambridge History of Iran'', by Richard Nelson Frye, William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle (Cambridge University Press, 1975: ISBN 0-521-20093-8), pg. 121.</ref><ref>''The Encyclopedia of World History'', ed. Peter N. Stearns and William Leonard Langer (Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 115.</ref> та Афганістану<ref name="Bosworth">[[Clifford Edmund Bosworth]], ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' [http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saffarids SAFFARIDS]</ref> між [[861]] та [[1003]] роками. Засновником династії був [[Якуб ібн Лейс ас-Саффар]], який на початку свого життя був ремісником і займався виробництвом предметів з міді. Захопивши владу в Сістані, він почав під прапором [[іслам]]у підкоряти собі Афганістан. Столицею Саффаридів було місто [[Зарандж]].
 
Саффариди проводили агресивну експансію як на схід, так і на захід. Спочатку вони вторглися в буддистсько-індіїстський [[Гіндукуш]], потім, [[873]] року, повалили [[Тахіриди|Тахіридів]] у [[Великий Хорасан|Хорасані]]. Вони загрожували Багдаду, але правителі [[Аббасидський халіфат|Аббасидського халіфату]] зуміли дати їм відсіч<ref name="Bosworth"/>.
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The '''Saffarids''' ({{lang-fa|سلسله صفاریان}}) were a [[Muslim]] [[Persianate]] dynasty from [[Sistan]] that ruled over parts of [[Greater Iran|eastern Iran]], [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]], [[Name of Afghanistan|Afghanistan]] and [[Balochistan region|Balochistan]] from 861 to 1003. The dynasty, of Persian origin,<ref>"''First, the Saffarid amirs and maliks were rulers of Persian stock who for centuries championed the cause of the underdog against the might of the Abbasid caliphs.''" -- Savory, Roger M.. "''The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3).''" The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1996</ref><ref>"''The provincial Persian Ya'kub, on the other hand, rejoiced in his plebeian origins, denounced the Abbasids as usurpers, and regarded both the caliphs and such governors from aristocratic Arab families as the Tahirids with contempt''". -- Ya'kub b. al-Layth al Saffar, C.E. Bosworth, '''The Encyclopaedia of Islam''', Vol. XI, p 255</ref><ref>''Saffarids: A Persian dynasty.....''", '''Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature''', Volume 2, edited by Julie Scott Meisami, Paul Starkey, p674</ref><ref>"''There were many local Persian dynasties, including the Tahirids, the Saffarids....''", '''Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa''', by Ali Aldosari, p472.</ref><ref>"''Saffarid, the Coppersmith, the epithet of the founder of this Persian dynasty...''", ''The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary'', by Garland Hampton Cannon, p288.</ref><ref>"''The Saffarids, the first Persian dynasty, to challenge the Abbasids...''", ''Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis'', by Farhad Daftary, p51.</ref>
 
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was founded by [[Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar]], a native of Sistan and a local [[ayyar]], who worked as a coppersmith (''ṣaffār'') before becoming a [[warlord]]. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of what is now Afghanistan in the name of [[Islam]].
 
The Saffarids used their capital [[Zaranj]], which is a city in modern-day Afghanistan, as a base for an aggressive expansion eastwards and westwards. They first invaded the [[Buddhism|Buddhist]]-[[Hindu]] dominated areas south of the [[Hindu Kush]] in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian [[Tahirid dynasty]], annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the [[Kabul|Kabul Valley]], [[Sindh]], [[Tocharistan]], [[Makran]] (Balochistan), [[Kerman]], [[Fars Province|Fars]], Khorasan, and nearly reached [[Baghdad]] but then suffered a defeat by the [[Abbasids]].<ref name="Bosworth"/>
 
The Saffarid empire did not last long after Ya'qub's death. His brother and successor, [[Amr bin Laith]], was defeated in a battle in [[Balkh]] against [[Ismail Samani]] in 900. Amr bin Laith was forced to surrender most of his territories to the new rulers. The Saffarids were subsequently confined to their heartland of Sistan, with their role reduced to that of [[vassal]]s of the [[Samanids]] and their successors.